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Sources

The bolded text represents the abbreviation cited in the Source field of the Medieval Londoners Database (MLD), followed by information about how the MLD team handled this particular source and links to the source if it is online.


Barron, London: Caroline M. Barron, London in the Later Middle Ages: Government and People 1200-1500 (Oxford, 2004).  MLD contains the data in “Appendix 2: Civic Officeholders c. 1300-c. 1500,” pp. 356-74. The data in her “Appendix 1: The Mayors and Sheriffs of London 1190-1558,” pp. 311-58 is also in MLD because it replicates the data in MASL (see below).


Beaven, I or II refers to material taken from Alfred P. Beaven, The Aldermen of The City of London, 2 vols. (London, 1908–13), which lists by ward and by date the men elected to serve as one of the 24 aldermen of the 24 (later 25) wards of London from c. 1230 to 1912, with some data from earlier decades. Aldermen ranked below only the mayor and two sheriffs in the civic government; they generally served for life but could transfer from one ward to another if there was a vacancy in a more attractive ward. The method of election also changed over time. Beaven’s list of aldermen is confusing to use, but has served as the chief source of information on London aldermen for over a century. With the permission of BHO, we have downloaded the HTML for the digitized version of Beaven, but checked it against the print version and found a significant number of errors—those typical of text run through OCR (Optical Character Recognition) software to convert scans of printed text into machine-encoded text—even though the BHO version is said to have been digitized by double re-keying, which would have resulted in far fewer errors. The MLD version of Beaven is thus closer to the original print version than the BHO digitized version, though we are grateful for the labor saved by using the BHO’s HTML. For an explanation of how we re-coded the BHO HTML to import into the MLD structure, see here [link forthcoming].

Although Beaven is a goldmine of information, it still suffers from limitations that even Beaven acknowledged The biggest problems are with the pre-1300 material, though the names, dates, and wards of the early aldermen have recently been revised by John McEwan in “The Aldermen of London, c. 1200-80: Alfred Beaven Revisited,” LAMAS 62 (2011): 177-204 (see below). Because Beaven’s data have been so influential in scholarship on medieval Londoners, we have incorporated all his information even when it includes errors, which means users need to compare more recent sources for later corrections to Beaven (particularly MASL for mayors, sheriffs, and wardens, and McEwan for the early aldermen). Almost all of the names in Beaven will eventually be entered into MLD, but as of 29 April 2019, all names and their accompanying information have been put into MLD for: (1) “Aldermen of Wards,” I, pp. 1-224; (2) Additional Notes and Corrigenda to the List of Aldermen of the Wards,” I, pp. 225-34; (3) “Addenda and Corrigenda,” I, pp 409-416 (note that Beaven’s corrections were used to correct the older data). MLD will not, however, include “M.P.s for city of London, 1283-1908” because Beaven’s information is also in his Chronological Lists and because more up-to-date data are now available.


McEwan, Aldermen’: John McEwan, ‘The Aldermen of London, c. 1200-80: Alfred Beaven Revisited,’ Transactions of the London & Middlesex Archaeological Society 62 (2011): 177-204. McEwan corrects data from Beaven about the dates, wards, and civic offices of London aldermen active in the thirteenth century.


HPO: History of Parliament Online, 1386-1422: The History of Parliament The House of Commons, 1386–1422, ed. J. S. Roskell, Linda Clark and Carole Rawcliffe (4 vols., Stroud, 1992) and History of Parliament Online, 1509-1558: The History of Parliament: The House of Commons, 1509-1558, ed. S. T. Bindoff (3 vols, Haynes Publishing, 2006). MLD links to the full biographies of London Members of Parliament in the HPO_URI field.


MASL: “Mayors and Sheriffs of London,” comp. Anne Lancashire (University of Toronto). A print version is in “Appendix I: The Mayors and Sheriffs of London 1190—1558,” compiled by Anne Lancashire, in Caroline M. Barron London in the Later Middle Ages (Oxford, 2004). Note that the base list for mayors in MASL is John Stow, A Survey of London, ed. C. L. Kingsford, 2 vols (1908) (cited in MASL as Stow/K), II. 150–83; Kingsford has corrected Stow and Kingsford’s names have been checked against and corrected according to: A. B. Beaven’s The Aldermen of The City of London, 2 vols. (1908–13). All corrections other than spelling changes have been noted. Sheriffs in MASL are based on A. Hughes’ List of Sheriffs for England and Wales (Public Record Office: Lists and Indexes, #9, 1898; rev. 1963), using CLRO copy with handprinted annotations made at the PRO, has also been consulted, and, for mayors, a c. 1970s CLRO typescript handlist. Table 2 of Susan Reynolds’ “Rulers of London” History 57 (1972) has been used for the specific time period 1190–1216 and also C. N. L. Brooke with G. Keir’s London 800–1216: The Shaping of a City (1975). Any information taken from Hughes, the CLRO handlist, Reynolds, or Brooke with Keir has been so noted.